Nutritional Deficiency. Chapter 6: Anemia During Pregnancy
Ali, Abdelaziem A.
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Anemia during pregnancy is a considerable health problem, with around two-fifths of pregnant women worldwide being anemic. Many gynecological and infectious diseases are predisposing factors for anemia during pregnancy. Anemia during pregnancy—especially the severe form—can lead to various maternal and perinatal adverse effects such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and intrauterine fetal death. It is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. Therefore, preventive measures are needed if anemia and its adverse effects are to be prevented. Iron and folic acid supplements are the cornerstone for the prevention of anemia during pregnancy and one of the earliest preventive measures adopted in antenatal care. Other measures to prevent anemia during pregnancy include the fortification of principle foods with iron, increasing health and nutritional awareness, combating parasitic infections, and improvement in sanitation. There is a controversy concerning the benefit of other elements such as zinc, copper, and magnesium, so the use of these elements is not widely adopted for the prevention of anemia.
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